Tax Tables and Rates 2018.

Income Tax

Personal Allowance (PA)*† £11,850£11,500
Blind Person's Allowance 2,3902,320
Rent a room relief **7,5007,500
Trading Income **1,0001,000
Property Income **1,0001,000

*PA will be withdrawn at £1 for every £2 by which ‘adjusted income’ exceeds £100,000. There will therefore be no allowance given if adjusted income is £123,700 or more (2017/18: £123,000).

† 10% of the PA (2018/19: £1,185; 2017/18: £1,150) can be transferred to a spouse or civil partner who is no more than a basic rate taxpayer.

** If gross income exceeds it, the limit may be deducted instead of actual expenses.

Rate Bands2018/192018/19
Basic Rate Band (BRB)£34,500£33,500
Higher Rate Band (HRB)£34,501-£150,000£33,501-£150,000
Additional rateover £150,000over £150,000
Personal Savings Allowance (PSA)
Basic rate taxpayer£1,000£1,000
Higher rate taxpayer£500£500
Dividend Allowance (DA)£2,000£5,000

BRB and additional rate threshold are increased by personal pension contributions (up to permitted limit) and Gift Aid donations.

Scottish taxpayers

The 2018/19 tax rates and bands for Scottish taxpayers have not been announced. For 2017/18, the basic rate band is £31,500.

Tax Rates2018/19 & 2017/18
Rates differ for General/Savings/Dividend incomeGSD
Basic Rate20%20%7.5%
Higher Rate40%40%32.5%
Additional Rate45%45%38.1%

General income (salary, pensions, business profits, rent) usually uses personal allowance, basic rate and higher rate bands before savings income (interest). To the extent that savings income falls in the first £5,000 of the basic rate band, it is taxed at nil rather than 20%.

The PSA taxes interest at nil, where it would otherwise be taxable at 20% or 40%.

Dividends are normally taxed as the ‘top slice’ of income. The DA taxes the first £2,000 (2017/18: £5,000) of dividend income at nil, rather than the rate that would otherwise apply.

High Income Child Benefit Charge (HICBC)

1% of child benefit for each £100 of adjusted net income between £50,000 and £60,000.

Remittance Basis Charge2018/192017/18
For non-UK domiciled individuals who have been UK resident in at least:
7 of the preceding 9 tax years£30,000£30,000
12 of the preceding 14 tax years£60,000£60,000
15 of the preceding 20 tax yearsDeemed to be UK domiciledDeemed to be UK domiciled


Registered Pensions2018/192017/18
Lifetime Allowance (LA)£1,030,000£1,000,000
Annual Allowance (AA)*£40,000£40,000

Annual relievable pension inputs are the higher of earnings (capped at AA) or £3,600.

*The AA is usually reduced by £1 for every £2 by which relevant income exceeds £150,000, down to a minimum AA of £10,000. The AA can be reduced to £4,000, where certain pension drawings have been made.

State pension (per week)2018/192017/18
Old state pension – Single person£125.95£122.30
Old state pension – Married couple£201.45£195.60
New state pension†£164.35£159.55

†applies to those reaching state retirement age after 5 April 2016.

Annual Investment Limits

Individual Savings Account (ISA)2018/192017/18
Overall Limit£20,000£20,000
Lifetime ISA£4,000£4,000
Junior ISA£4,260£4,128
EIS – 30% relief*£2,000,000£1,000,000
EIS eligible for CGT deferral reliefUnlimitedUnlimited
Seed EIS (SEIS) – 50% relief£100,000£100,000
SEIS – 50% exemption for reinvested gains£100,000£100,000
Venture Capital Trust (VCT) – 30% relief£200,000£200,000

*For 2018/19, amount over £1m must be invested in ‘knowledge-intensive’ companies.

National Insurance Contributions

Class 1 (Employees)EmployeeEmployer
Main NIC rate12.0%13.8%
No NIC on first£162pw£162pw
Main rate* charged up to£892pwNo Limit
2% rate on earnings above£892pwN/A
Employment allowance per business**N/A£3,000

*Nil rate of employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under 25, up to £892pw.

Employer contributions (at 13.8%) are also due on most taxable benefits (Class 1A) and on tax paid on an employee’s behalf under a PAYE settlement agreement (Class 1B).

**Some businesses do not qualify, including certain sole director companies.

Class 2 (Self-employed)
Flat rate per week£2.95
Small profits threshold£6,205
Class 3 (Voluntary)
Flat rate per week£14.65
Class 4 (Self-employed)
On profits £8,424 – £46,3509.0%
On profits over £46,3502.0%

Vehicle Benefits


Taxable benefit: Chargeable value multiplied by chargeable %.

Chargeable value:

Initial list price of car (including most accessories), reduced by any capital contribution (maximum £5,000) by employee when the car is first made available.

Chargeable percentage:

CO2 emissions g/kmPetrolDiesel
Above 94Add 1% for every 5g/kmAdd 1% for every 5g/km
Above 179 (petrol)/ 159 (diesel)37% maximum37% maximum


Chargeable value of £3,350 (2017/18 £3,230) if private use is more than home-to-work. Electric vans £670 (2017/18 £646).


Employer provides fuel for private motoring in an employer-owned:

Car:CO2-based percentage from above table multiplied by £23,400 (2017/18 £22,600).

Van:£633 (2017/18 £610).

Employee contributions do not reduce taxable figure unless all private fuel is paid for by the employee (in which case there is no benefit charge).

Tax-free mileage allowances

Employee's own transportper business mile
Cars first 10,000 miles45p
Cars over 10,000 miles25p
Business passengers5p

Capital Gains Tax

Annual exemption
Individuals, estates£11,700£11,300
Most trusts£5,8505,650
Tax rate
Individual (to basic rate limit)*10%10%
Individual (above basic rate limit)*20%20%
Entrepreneurs' Relief (ER)**10%10%
Trusts, estates*20%20%

*Individuals are taxed at 18%/28% on gains on residential property and receipts of carried interest. Trusts are taxed at 28% in these circumstances.

**ER is available for lifetime gains of up to £10m. Qualifying disposals include a trading business and shares in a trading company (from a minimum 5% holding) by an officer/employee. Various conditions apply.

Shares in an unquoted trading company may be eligible for a 10% CGT rate on lifetime gains up to £10m, if disposed of after 5 April 2019 by someone who is neither a paid officer nor employee of the company (Investors’ Relief).

Corporation Tax

Year to31.3.201931.3.2018
Corporation Tax rate19%20%
Research and development reliefFrom 1.1.2018From 1.4.2015
to 31.12.2017
SME enhanced expenditure
deduction scheme*130%130%
Large company R&D Expenditure
Credit (RDEC) scheme**12%11%

*Additional deduction for qualifying R&D

**Taxable expenditure credit for qualifying R&D

SMEs that make losses can surrender the deduction to HMRC in exchange for a payment of 14.5% of the loss.

Main Capital Allowances

Plant and MachineryLimit
100% Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)£200,000
Other Rates
Energy and water-efficient equipment100%
Writing down allowance: general pool (reducing balance)18%
Writing down allowance: special rate pool (reducing balance)8%

The special rate pool includes long life assets, integral plant in buildings, thermal insulation.

Motor Cars
From to 31.3.18Allowance
CO2 (g/km)CO2 (g/km)
New cars onlyup to 50up to 75100%
In general poolup to 110up to 13018% pa
In special rate poolabove 110above 1308% pa

Property Taxes

Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (ATED)

ATED applies to ‘high value’ residential properties owned via a corporate structure, unless the property is used for a qualifying purpose. The tax applies to properties valued at more than £500,000.

Property ValueAnnual Charge ToAnnual Charge To
£0.5m - £1m£3,600£3,500
£1m - £2m£7,250£7,050
£2m – £5m£24,250£23,550
£5m – £10m£56,550£54,950
£10m – £20m£113,400£110,100
£20m +£226,950£220,350

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) and Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) and Land Transaction Tax (LTT)

Residential property (1st property only)
SDLT - England & NI
£000Rate on band
%LBTT - Scotland
£000Rate on band
%LTT - Wales
£000Rate on band
Up to 125NilUp to 145NilUp to 150Nil
125 - 2502%145 – 2502%150 – 2502.5%
250 – 9255%250– 3255%Up to 1455.0%
925 – 1,50010%325 – 75010%400 to 7507.5%
Over 1,50012%Over 75012%750 – 1,50010.0%
Over 1,50012.0%

LTT replaces SDLT in Wales from 1 April 2018.

A supplement of 3% of the total purchase price applies for all three taxes where an additional residential property is purchased for more than £40,000 (unless replacing a main residence).


– From 22.11.17, first-time buyers purchasing a property of up to £500,000 pay a nil rate on the first £300,000 of purchase price.

– A rate of 15% applies to the total purchase price where the property is valued above £500,000 and purchased by a ‘non-natural person’ (e.g. a company).

Non residential or mixed use property
SDLT - England & NI
£000Rate on band
%LBTT - Scotland
£000Rate on band
%LTT - Wales
£000Rate on band
Up to 150NilUp to 150NilUp to 150Nil
150 - 2502%150 – 3503%150 - 2501%
Over 2505%Over 3504.5%250 – 1,0005%
Over 1,0006%

LBTT rates may change after the Scottish Budget in December 2017.

Value Added Tax

Standard rate (1/6 of VAT-inclusive price)20%
Registration level from 1.4.2018£85,000 per annum
Deregistration level from 1.4.201883,000 per annum
Flat Rate Scheme (FRS)
Annual taxable turnover to enter schemeUp to £150,000
Must leave scheme if annual gross turnoverExceeds £230,000

If using FRS, the VAT paid by the business is a fixed percentage (based on business category) of 'FRS turnover' rather than the net of output tax over input tax. Input tax is usually not recoverable.

Cash accounting and Annual accounting schemes
Annual taxable turnover to enter schemeUp to £1.35m
Must leave scheme if annual taxable turnover

Option to tax property

Notify HMRC within 30 days.

Inheritance Tax

Nil rate band (NRB)*£325,000£325,000
NRB Residential enhancement (RNRB)†*£125,000£100,000
Rate of tax above nil rate band**40%40%
Lifetime transfers to most trusts20%20%

†RNRB is available for transfers of a main residence to direct descendents. It tapers away at the rate of £1 for every £2 of estate value above £2m.

*Up to 100% of the proportion of a deceased spouse’s/civil partner’s unused NRB and RNRB band may be claimed to increment the current NRB and RNRB when the survivor dies.

**Rate reduced to 36% if at least 10% of the relevant estate is left to charity. Unlimited exemption for transfers between spouses/civil partners, except if UK domiciled transferor and foreign domiciled transferee, where maximum exemption £325,000.

100% Business Property Relief (BPR) for all shareholdings in qualifying unquoted trading companies, qualifying unincorporated trading businesses and certain farmland/buildings.

Reduced tax charge on gifts within 7 years before death
Years before death0-33-44-55-66-7
% of full death tax charge payable10080604020

Annual exemptions for lifetime gifts include £3,000 per donor and £250 per recipient.

Key Dates and Deadlines

Payment dates
Self assessment2018/192017/18
1st payment on account31 January20192018
2nd payment on account31 July20192018
Balancing payment31 January20202019
Capital Gains Tax*31 January20202019
Other Payment Dates
Class 1A NIC19 July20192018
Class 1B NIC19 October20192018

*Non-residents with gains on UK residential property must pay CGT within 30 days of disposal unless already filing a self assessment tax return.

Corporation tax is due 9 months and 1 day from the end of the accounting period, unless a 'large' company paying by quarterly instalments.

2017/18 Filing deadlines
Issue P60s to employees31 May 2018
P11D, P11D(b)6 July 2018
Self assessment tax return (SATR) paper version31 October 2018
Online SATR if outstanding tax
to be included in 2019/20 PAYE code30 December 2018
Online SATR31 January 2019

Useful Rates

National Minimum Wage
 Rates per hour From 1.04.18From 1.04.17
Aged 25 and over (National Living Wage)£7.83££7.50
Aged 21 - 24£7.38£7.05
Aged 18 - 20£5.90£5.60
Aged 16 - 17£4.20£4.05
Child Benefit (per week)2018/192017/18
First eligible child£20.70£20.70
Each subsequent child£13.70£13.70